Among the ancient Romans as "emerald of the evening" revered, sought-after gem for Church jewelery in the Middle Ages, sought after fashion stone in the Baroque: The Peridot looks back on an eventful history and is now popular for its warm green hue especially as summer jewelry. Famous stones of this genre can be admired in the treasury chamber of the Residenz in Munich as well as in the Moscow Kremlin or in the cathedral treasury of Cologne, where up to 300 carats peridote decorate the Shrine of the Three Kings.
The peridot was first mined about 3500 years ago on the small volcanic island Zebirget in the Red Sea, 300 km east of Aswan. This site was formerly the most beautiful specimen of the precious stone, but has been exhausted for decades. Today, high-quality peridotes are found in the serpentine quarries in Myanmar as well as deposits in the Kashmir region, whose discovery was a sensation in the 1990s. There, stones of unrivaled quality were found at an altitude of 4000 meters, which as "Kashmir peridot" helped the stone, which had fallen into oblivion, become popular. Further deposits are found in Australia, Brazil (Minas Gerais), China, Kenya, Mexico, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Tanzania, Norway and the USA.
The stone, made of silicate minerals from the Oliving Group, has three names: mineralogenes call it olivine, but it is also known as chrysolite (Greek "gold stone"), which was valid until the modern age for all yellowish stones. For the green variety, the name Peridot has prevailed in the middle of the 18th century. The origin of this name is not quite clear, presumably it comes from the Greek "peridona" (in cases) as a reference to the area richness of its crystals. Peridot is one of the few gemstones that exists only in one color, because the coloring iron is an integral part of its chemical formula. Only the color depth varies according to the iron content, ranging from light pistachio green to moss green to the popular olive green.
In contrast to other stones, the color intensity remains unchanged even in artificial light. Characteristic is the high birefringence, which, in the case of large specimens, preferably processed in the panel or rosette, makes the facet edges double. Particularly valuable rarities are the peridot cat eye and the star peridot, which shows as cabochon a usually four-beam star. The peridot is considered the "stone of hope", which strengthens the inner equilibrium and promotes positive life. He should relieve grief, dissolve anger and feelings of guilt, as well as lead the way to a self-determined life. He is also being given healing effects for the eyes, heart and airways.