As "Stone of Heaven" he was worshiped in ancient Persia, for it was believed, the blue of the sky came from a giant sapphire, which surrounds the earth. Catholic prelates wore a sapphire ring on her right hand as a sign of heavenly power. For the ancient Egyptians and Romans it was the stone of justice and truth, and Charlemagne had to protect from a talisman made of sapphire. Always be connected the blue sapphire with peace, purity, peace and friendship.
Lapis lazulis were also used for sapphires for a long time; the sapphire, as well as its red brother, the ruby, was not assigned to the mineral corundum until about 1800. Like the ruby, it has the high Mohsha hardness 9, but is not so rare. It is found mainly in deposits of former rivers and streams called soaps. The most important occurrences have been found until recently in India, and the green sapphire, the pink sapphire, the (colorless) leucosaphir, and the padparadscha (singhales for lotus blossoms) are the rarest and most coveted in sapphire. The sapphire is used mainly as a jewel. Clear, powerful luminous stones with few inclusions are provided with facet cut, turbid stones are converted into cabochons.
Rutile needles and an artistic finish often create visual effects such as the cat-eye effect (chatoyance), a silky shimmer (silk) or the so-called asterism, where a six-star star is visible. The star of India is probably the most impressive sapphire with 536 carats , Which can be seen in the American Museum of Natural History in New York, just like the black "midnight star" (116 ct). Other famous figures are the "Star of Asia", a 330-carat-heavy sapphire, exhibited at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, as well as the St. Edward's sapphire and the Stuart sapphire in the English Kronschatz.